The Basics of Dog Socialization
Dogs must be well socialized from a very early age if they are to accept humans, the domestic environment in which they live and other dogs and animals without any kinds of problem behavior occurring.
Dogs are social creatures. Different breeds of dog enjoy the company of people and other animals to different extents, but all like to live their lives in a pack with others, whether human or canine. If denied social contact, they can become badly behaved or depressed. An under socialized dog can be difficult to live with, handle and control, and should be properly socialized for the safety and contentment of all concerned.
Dogs need to be taught to behave well around all humans. Examples of these include the following:
• Wheelchair users, people with walking sticks or crutches and the elderly.
• Babies, toddlers, timid people and people who are not comfortable around dogs.
• Energetic and noisy children and adults.
• Joggers, cyclists, rollerblades, skateboarders and people pushing prams.
• People with beards, unusual hairstyles, spectacles, headgear, uniforms or umbrellas.
Many dogs have a particular problem with delivery people, because of territorial aggression (a form of fear aggression).
Delivery people come to his territory, where he is most confident, and then, from the dog’s point of view, go as soon as they are barked at, so the barking has worked.
The Basics of Canine Senses
A dog’s nervous and sensory systems are essential to his health and well-being. Perceptions and reactions to his environment are dependent on his senses; movement is controlled through the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord); and the endocrine system (the hormone-producing glands) controls his patterns of behaviour.
Canine vision is inferior to human during the day, but is superior at night. Dogs do see colours, but not as distinctly as humans (in pastel as opposed to strong colours), and their peripheral vision is better than ours. In addition to the upper and lower eyelids, there is a third eyelid – the nictitating membrane (haw), which is comprised of a thin sheet of pale tissue tucked away in the corner of the eye. Its function is to help remove dust and dirt from the surface of the eye (cornea) by moving across it during any inward movement, and also to help keep the eyeball moist and lubricated.
A dog’s hearing is vastly superior to that of a human and he is, therefore, more sensitive to sounds than we are – especially those at high frequencies which we cannot hear (hence the use of ‘silent’ dog whistles). A dog’s mobile ears help to pinpoint the source of a sound, since they can be directed towards it.
A dog’s primary sense is his sense of smell, as it is essential in relation to his sex life and hunting for food and water. The area in a dog’s nose for detecting scent is nearly 37 times larger than that in humans, and is approximately 100 times more powerful than a human’s. The parts of the brain that process signals coming in from the nose are far greater in size and complexity in a dog than are the corresponding parts of the human brain.